麻省理工学院的初创公司Inkbit通过赋予机器“眼睛和大脑”,克服了传统的3D打印限制。
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3D打印的物体可以更轻,stronger,比传统的制造方法更复杂。但在3D打印改变大多数设备的生产之前,必须克服几个技术挑战。

商用打印机通常只提供高速,高精度,or high-quality materials.Rarely do they offer all three,limiting their usefulness as a manufacturing tool.今天,3D打印主要用于特殊零件的原型制作和小批量生产。

现在是墨水笔,麻省理工学院的初创企业,正致力于将3D打印的所有好处带到一系列以前从未印刷过的产品上,它的目标是在大量的产品上实现这一点,这些产品将彻底破坏各种行业的生产流程。

该公司正通过将其多材料喷墨3D打印机与机器视觉和机器学习系统配对来实现这一目标。

The vision system comprehensively scans each layer of the object as it's being printed to correct errors in real time,while the machine-learning system uses that information to predict the warping behaviour of materials and make more accurate final products.

"The company was born out of the idea of endowing a 3D printer with eyes and brains," says Inkbit co-founder and CEO Davide Marini PhD '03.

这一想法开启了Inkbit机器的一系列应用程序。该公司表示,与其他打印机相比,它可以更准确地打印更灵活的材料。

如果一个物体,包括计算机芯片或其他电子元件,放置在打印区域,这台机器能精确地打印周围的材料。当一个物体完成时,the machine keeps a digital replica that can be used for quality assurance.

Inkbit is still an early-stage company.It currently has one operational production-grade printer.But it will begin selling printed products later this year,starting with a pilot with Johnson & Johnson,在明年出售打印机之前。

如果Inkbit能够利用销售医疗设备的公司的当前利益,消费品,以及汽车零部件,在接下来的几年里,它的机器将在一系列数十亿美元的市场中发挥主导作用,from dental aligners to industrial tooling and sleep apnea masks.

"Everyone knows the advantages of 3D printing are enormous," says Marini.“但大多数人在接受它时都遇到了问题。技术还没有出现。

"Our machine is the first one that can learn the properties of a material and predict its behaviour.我相信这会带来变革,because it will enable anyone to go from an idea to a usable product extremely quickly.它为每个人打开了商机。”

A printer with potential


今天最难印刷的一些材料也是当前制造过程中最常用的。其中包括类似橡胶的材料,比如硅树脂,以及环氧等高温材料,通常用于绝缘电子产品和各种消费者,健康,and industrial products.

These materials are usually difficult to print,leading to uneven distribution and print process failures like clogging.They also tend to shrink or round at the edges over time.

Inkbit co-founders Wojciech Matusik,电气工程和计算机科学副教授,哈维尔·拉莫斯BS'12 SM'14,Wenshou Wang,and Kiril Vidimče SM '14 have been working on these problems for years in Matusik'sComputational Fabrications Groupwithin theComputer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory(CSAIL)。

2015年,the co-founders were among a group of researchers that created a relatively低成本,精密3D打印机利用机器视觉,可以一次打印出创纪录的10种材料。

这一壮举引起了许多大公司的注意,他们对将生产转换为3D打印感兴趣,第二年,这四位工程师得到了德什潘德中心的支持,将他们将机器视觉与3D打印结合的想法商业化。

在麻省理工学院,Matusik's research group used a simple 3D scanner to track its machine's progress.对于Inkbit的第一台打印机,创始人们想显著地提高他们机器的“眼睛”。

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanner


他们决定使用光学相干断层扫描(OCT)扫描仪,which uses long wavelengths of light to see through the surface of materials and scan layers of material at a resolution the fraction of the width of a human hair.

因为OCT扫描仪传统上只用于眼科医生检查患者眼睛表面以下的部位,the only ones available were far too slow to scan each layer of a 3D printed part — so Inkbit's team "bit the bullet",就像玛丽尼描述的那样,他说,定制的OCT扫描仪的速度是现在市场上任何产品的100倍。

打印和扫描图层时,the company's proprietary machine-vision and machine-learning systems automatically correct any errors in real time and proactively compensate for the warping and shrinkage behaviour of a fickle material.

这些工艺进一步扩大了公司能够印刷的材料范围,通过去除其他打印机使用的滚筒和刮刀来确保精度。当与难以打印的材料一起使用时容易堵塞。

The system is designed to allow users to prototype and manufacture new objects on the same machine.Inkbit目前的工业打印机有16个打印头,用于生产多种材料部件和一个打印块,其大小足以每年生产数十万种拳头大小的产品(或较小数量的较大产品)。

The machine's contactless inkjet design means increasing the size of later iterations will be as simple as expanding the print block.

"Before,人们可以用多材料打印机制作原型,但他们不能真正制造出最终零件,”马图西克说,注意到InkBit部件的后处理可以完全自动化。"This is something that's not possible using any other manufacturing methods."

Inkbit's 3-D printer can produce multimaterial objects (like the pinch valve shown above) at high volumes.由Inkbit提供。

The novel capabilities of Inkbit's machine mean that some of the materials the founders want to print with are not available,因此,该公司创建了自己的一些化学制品,以将其产品的性能推向极限。188betsport

两段式化学混合系统188betsport


一个专门用于在打印前混合两种材料的系统将于明年在打印机墨水船上提供。两部分化学混合系统将使公司188betsport能够打印更广泛的工程级材料。

Johnson & Johnson,a strategic partner of Inkbit,is in the process of acquiring one of the first printers.TheMIT启动交换加速器(stex25)也有助于将inkbit向像Amgen这样的领先公司曝光,Asics,BAE系统公司,博世香奈儿,洛克希德马丁公司美敦力,诺华,以及其他。

今天,创始人花了很多时间来教育产品设计团队,这些团队以前从未能够对他们的产品进行3D打印,更不用说将电子组件集成到3D打印部件中了。

设计师和发明家可能需要一段时间才能充分利用集成技术带来的可能性,multimaterial 3D printing.But for now,Inkbit is working to ensure that,when that future comes,最有想象力的人会有一台机器来工作。

马图西克说:“其中一些事情远远超前于时代。”“我认为看到人们将如何将其用于最终产品将是非常有意思的。”

//www.bjgzb.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/a1-19.jpg//www.bjgzb.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/a1-19-300x300.jpgDavid O'RiordanTech3D、MIT、初创企业
3D打印的物体可以更轻,stronger,比传统的制造方法更复杂。But several technical challenges must be overcome before 3D printing transforms the production of most devices.Commercially available printers generally offer only high speed,高精度,or high-quality materials.很少做…